Social capital is seen as a social resource that can give access to opportunities in education, the labour market, and can lead to collective efficacy. It is thus often seen as matched to policy concerns. (p88)
This chapter questions whether social networks are a part of this system for social capital? Young people have to be recognized as valid/valued contributors, whilst youth practitioners need to facilitate examples to enhance/nurture opportunities to contribute.
This book sees social capital as a ‘social resource’ – giving access to education opportunities, etc. leading to collective efficacy. Traditionally viewed as part of adult social networks only – but seen here also for children.
There are notions of social capital as the ‘glue’ of society – sees it as a community asset – which has heavily influenced New Labour’s social policy. “Norms of reciprocity and trust among community members seem to focus on the maintenance of the social system, specifically cohesion and social order, and thus aim for integration into mainstream society.” Both have issues if youth do not conform – seeing them as ‘anti-social’ …
Cohesion: “respect for core social values, reciprocal rights of community members and the identification of common goals in spite of religious and cultural differences.” (p96) Can also be used to regulate children into ‘normative’ behaviours in subtle ways.
(p101) – Job of youth professionals to help children work out demoralizing/self-perpetuating limited vision, introspection and ‘victim blaming’ – be aware of structures of society to make them transparent – enable them to see opportunities for change.