Bibliography and Sources

Primary Sources

Imperial War Museum, London
Scrapbooks entitled ‘Ministry of Information’, kept by E. Embleton, 1939- 1946, containing various newspaper clippings (many unsourced and undated).

Collection of newspaper cuttings entitled ‘ATS Glamour Girl, History 1939-85’ by Abram Games OBE, RDI.

Selection of original posters

Mass Observation Archives, University of Sussex
Change No. 2, Home Propaganda for The Advertising Services Guild, [1942]

FR 1, ‘Channels of Publicity’, 11/10/39

FR 2, ‘Government Posters in Wartime’, October 1939

FR 74, ‘Grab, Grab, Grab’ poster, 16/04/40

FR 442, ‘Be Like Dad, Keep Mum’ slogan, October 1940

FR 800, ‘Gas mask posters’, 21/07/41

FR 853, ‘The Technique of Gallup Polls’, 30/08/41

FR 1020, ‘Reviews of Home Propaganda by M-O: from Art and Industry, Vol. 32’, January 1942

FR 2442, Directive and Bulletin: New Series No 4, Merry and Black: reactions to the ‘Black Widow’ poster on road safety, December 1946

TC, Posters: Box 1 ‘Government Poster Survey 1939’

File A: ‘Memos and Comments’ September – November 1939
File C: ‘Government posters in wartime’ October 1939
File E: ‘Extra information post-survey’ 1939-1940

Box 2: ‘Surveys of particular Government posters 1939-1941’

File B: ‘Keep it Dark’ poster survey’ October 1939
File C: ‘Anti-gossip posters’ 1939-1940
File D: ‘Grab, Grab, Grab poster’ April 1940
File E: ‘Gas mask posters’ August 1941
File G: ‘Miscellaneous’ 1941

Box 4: ‘Various poster surveys: Government and Commercial’ 1939-1943

File A: ‘Poster survey’ 1939-1943
File C: ‘Red Army poster’ August 1941

Selection of original posters

Public Record Office, Kew (Now The National Archives)
Ministry of Information
INF 1/ Ministry of Information Files of Correspondence

INF 2/ Guard Books and Related Unregistered Papers

INF 3/ Ministry of Information Original Art Work

INF 13/ Posters and Publications (Selection)

Ministry of Agriculture
MAF 59/ Woman’s Land Army

Secondary Sources

Addison, P. The Road to 1945 (Quartet, London) 1975

Balfour, M. Propaganda in the War 1939-45, Organisations, Policies and Publics in Britain and Germany (Routledge and Kegan Paul, London) 1979

Begley, G. Keep Mum: Advertising Goes to War (Lemon Tree Press, London) 1975

Bell, P.M.H. John Bull and the Bear: British Public Opinion, Foreign Politics and the Soviet Union, 1941-1945 (Edward Arnold, London) 1990

Boehm, E. Behind Enemy Lines: WWII Allied/Axis Propaganda (Wellfleet, New Jersey) 1989

Briggs, A. The War of Words: A History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom Vol. 3 (Oxford University Press, Oxford) 1970

Briggs, S. Keep Smiling Through (Weidenfeld & Nicholson, London) 1975

Brown, J.A.C. Techniques of Persuasion: From Propaganda to Brainwashing (Penguin, Middlesex) 1963

Calder, A .The People’s War 1939-1945 (Pimlico, London) 1969

Calder, A. and Sheridan, D. Speak for Yourself: A Mass-Observation Anthology 1937-49 (Jonathan Cape, London) 1984

Campbell, J. (ed) The Experience of World War Two (Grange Books, London) 1994

Cantwell, J.D. Images of War: British Posters 1939-45 (HMSO, London) 1989

——- The Second World War: A Guide to Documents in the Public Record Office (HMSO, London) 1993

Catterall, P Britain 1918-1951 ( Heinemann, Oxford) 1994

Chamberlin, E.R. Life in Wartime Britain (B.T. Batsford, London) 1972

Collier, P.F. Collier’s Encyclopaedia (CDRom) 1996

Costello, J. Love, Sex and War 1939-1945 (Pan Books, London) 1985

Darracott, J. and Loftus, B. (Imperial War Museum) Second World War Posters (HMSO, London) 1972

Davies, J. The Wartime Kitchen and Garden: The Home Front 1939-45 (BBC, London) 1993

Dear, I.C.B. The Oxford Companion to the Second World War (Oxford University Press, Oxford) 1995

Felton, M. Civilian Supplies in Wartime Britain (Ministry of Information, England) 1945 (Reprinted 1997 by Imperial War Museum)

Fowler, S. ‘The Nation’s Memory’ in Martin, A.M. (ed) Despatches: the Magazine of the Friends of the Imperial War Museum, April 1997, pp4-7

Fougasse A School of Purposes: Fougasse Posters, 1939-45 (Methuen, London) 1946

Freeman, R.A. Britain at War (Arms and Armour Press, London) 1990

Funk and Wagnalls Corporation Microsoft Encarta Encyclopaedia (CDRom) 1995

Gallup, G.H. The Gallup International Public Opinion Polls: Great Britain 1937-1975 Vol. 1: 1937-1964 (Random House, New York) 1976

Gaskell, I. ‘History of Images’ in Burke, P. (ed) New Perspectives on Historical Writing (Polity Press, Cambridge) 1991

Gledhill, C. and Swanson, G. (eds) Nationalising Femininity: Culture, sexuality and British cinema in the Second World War (Manchester University Press, Manchester) 1996

Gubar, S. ‘”This Is My Rifle, This Is My Gun”: World War Two and the Blitz on Women’ in Higonnet, M.R., Jenson, J., Michel, S. and Weitz, M.C. (eds) Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars (Yale University Press, London) 1987

Harper, P. War, Revolution and Peace, Propaganda Posters from the Hoover Institution Archives 1914-1945 [Stanford Art Department, Stanford Museum] [1969]

Harrisson, T. Living Through the Blitz (Penguin, Hammondsworth) 1976

Haskell, F. History and its Images: Art and the Interpretation of the Past (Yale University Press, London) 1993

Hillier, B. Posters (Spring Books, London) 1969

H.M.S.O. Persuading the People (HMSO, London) 1995

Hollis, R. Graphic Design: A Concise History (Thames and Hudson, London) 1994

Howlett, P. Fighting with Figures: A statistical digest of the Second World War (HMSO, London) 1995

Hunt, J. and Watson, S. Britain and the Two World Wars (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge) 1990

Jowett, G. and O’Donnell, V. Propaganda and Persuasion (Sage, London) 1987

Kostelanetz, R. (ed) Moholy-Nagy (Allen Lane, London) 1970

Kress, G. and Van Leeuwen, T. Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design (Routledge, London) 1996

INDEX The Spirit of Wartime (Orbis, Kettering) 1995

Lant, A. Blackout: Reinventing Women for Wartime British Cinema (Princeton University Press, Oxford) 1991

Lewis, P. A People’s War (Thames Methuen, London) 1986

Lissitsky, K. El Lissitsky (Thames and Hudson, London) 1968

Longmate, N. How We Lived Then (Arrow Books, London) 1977

Lysaght, C.E. Brendan Bracken (Allen Lane, London) 1979

Marshall Cavendish Collection, ‘Selling the War’ in Images of War No.64 (Marshall Cavendish, London) 1996

Marwick, A. The Nature of History (MacMillan, Basingstoke) 1989

McLaine, I. Ministry of Morale: Home Front Morale and the Ministry of Information in World War Two (George Allen and Unwin, London) 1979

McQuiston, L. Graphic Agitation (Phaidon Press, London) 1993

Meggs, P.B. Type and Image: The Language of Graphic Design (Von Nostrand Reinhold, London) 1989

Mercer, D. (ed.) Chronicle of the Second World War (Longman, Harlow) 1990

Nelson, D. The Posters that won the war: The Production, Recruitment and War Bond Posters of World War II (Motorbooks, Wisconsin) 1991

Opie, R. The Wartime Scrapbook: from Blitz to Victory (New Cavendish Books, London) 1995

Paret, P., Lewis, B.I., and Paret, P. Persuasive Images: Posters of War and Revolution (Princeton University Press, New Jersey) 1992

Pearce, M. and Stewart, G. British Political History 1867-1990 (Routledge, London) 1992

Pope, R. War and Society in Britain (Longman, London) 1991

Richards, J. and Sheridan, D. (eds) Mass-Observation at the Movies (Routledge and Kegan Paul, London) 1987

Rickards, M. The Rise and Fall of the Poster (David and Charles, Newton Abbot) 1971

Samuel, R. (ed) Patriotism: The Making and Unmaking of British National Identity, Vol. III: National Fictions (Routledge, London) 1989

Smith, M. British Politics, Society and State Since the Late Nineteenth Century (MacMillan, Basingstoke) 1990

Stevenson, J. British Society 1914-45 (Penguin, London) 1984

Taylor, P.M. The Projection of Britain: British Overseas Publicity and Propaganda 1919-1939 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge) 1981

Thompson, P. and Davenport, P. The Dictionary of Visual Language (Bogstom & Boyle Books, Ltd., London) 1980

Tinkler, P. Constructing Girlhood: Popular Magazines for Girls Growing up in England 1920-1950 (Taylor and Francis, London) 1995

Weight, R. ‘State, Intelligentsia and the Promotion of National Culture in Britain, 1939-45’, Historical Research, Vol. 69, No. 168, February 1996, pp83-101

Weill, A. The Poster (Sotheby’s, London) 1985

Willett, J. The Weimar Years: a culture cut short (Thames and Hudson, London) 1984

Zemen, Z. Selling the War: Art and Propaganda in World War II (Orbis, London) 1978

If you wish to cite from this page, please use the following citation:

Lewis, R.M., ‘Bibliography & Sources, Undergraduate Thesis: The planning, design and reception of British home front propaganda posters of the Second World War’, <URL>, written April 1997, accessed Enter Date Here

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Mass Communications Academic, @MMUBS. British Home Front Propaganda posters as researched for a PhD completed 2004. In 1997, unwittingly wrote the first history of the Keep Calm and Carry On poster, which she now follows with interest.

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